The focus shifted from the extensive studies (via many unethical experiments) into trauma and the mind of the individual to the brainwashing on a massive scale that we see today.
It extended the focus from the mind of the individual to the application of the methods of manipulation on groups / social engineering.
The experiments on the mind of the individual – MKULTRA included studying application of the Cybernetic model of the mind/personality as a machine which can be specifically conditioned/programmed as discussed at the Josiah Macy Cybernetic conferences where MKULTRA operants met to share insights. The Josiah Macy foundation being used as a front for the CIA to channel funds into MKULTRA. Along side cybernetics a continuous theme underlying the Macy conferences was child psychology.
Cyberneticists (eg the UK’s William Grey Walter) were invited to contribute their ideas to child psychology in the WHO child psychobiology international conferences also attended by the leading child psychologists and psychiatrists. , and the merging of child care with programming was applied at the Child Guidance centres in the UK.
In the 1950′s cyberneticists – for example Beer, Pask and Ashby – started to look at group organisation and interaction using models from biology, including interaction
” of colonies of Daphnia, a freshwater crustacean, which had been induced to ingest iron filings and could thus be coupled to external environments via electromagnets, and he also tried light sensitive amoebas known as Euglena. When the Euglena refused to function as a homeostatic system he switched to entire ponds as homeostatic ecosystems . . .
. . . These systems proved to be sensitive to an indefinite variety of environmental influences, and Beer and Pask hoped to be able to train them to perform all sorts of functions.
This contributed to Human Ecology when for example MK ULTRA Cyberneticist and Anthropologist George Bateson helped to extend systems theory/cybernetics to the social/behavioral sciences.
Alongside the Macy Foundation, another funding front for MKULTRA was the Society for Human Ecology.
In the UK, the Group Relations Conferences run by Tavistock at the University of Leicester since 1957, (linked to the National Training Laboratories in the USA) are still running to this day and “organisations can send their managers to learn more effectively to manage the unconsciouses of their workers and to make themselves more effective leaders.”